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Mare nostrum mussolini

Alfredo Oriani, La Rivolta Ideale: Opera Omnia di Alfredo Oriani, a cura di Benito Mussolini (Bologna: Licinio Cappelli, 1930), iii–v. Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) His editorial positions ; The war was a turning point for Italy. The returning combat soldiers would form a new Policy of Mare Nostrum (Our Sea) desire to control the Mediterranean ; Policy of imperialistic expansion led to invasio

Mare Nostrum - Wikipedi

The Mediterranean was called Mare Nostrum (Latin for "Our Sea") during the centuries of the Roman Empire, an empire that Fascism intended to recreate after the conquest of Ethiopia in 1936.Mayor Teseo Tesei, inventor of the Maiale, as was called the Italian human torpedo, ready to attack Malta. The Regia Marina performed well and bravely[4] in its North African convoy duties, but remained at a technical disadvantage. The Italian ships relied on a speed advantage, but could easily be damaged by shell or torpedo, due to their relatively thin armour. The fatal and final blow to the Italian Navy was a shortage of fuel, which forced her main units to remain at anchor for most of the last year of the Italian alliance with Germany [10]. 1 Mare Nostrum is Latin for Our Sea. The Romans already called the Mediterranean Sea by this name. It became more controversial, however, after it was also used by the fascist Mussolini government to push for a sphere of Italian influence in the Mediterranean Sea The name "Mare Nostrum" was chosen for a conference by the Society for Mediterranean Law and Culture. It was held in June 2012 at the University of Cagliari in Sardinia. What they meant by the term was the full diversity of Mediterranean cultures, especially for exchanges and cooperation among Mediterranean nations.

Regia Aeronauticachange change source

On the role of antiquity in the formation of the Italian nation, see Antonio De Francesco, The Antiquity of the Italian Nation: The Cultural Origins of a Political Myth in Modern Italy, 1796–1953 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013). For the use of Roman antiquity as models for Italian unification, see Henrik Mouritsen, Italian Unification: A Study in Ancient and Modern Historiography (London: Institute of Classical Studies, 1998). Description. Our Sea. So boasted Benito Mussolini in the weeks leading to the Italian declaration of war on the Allies. Come November 1940, 18 Fleet Air Arm Pilots strongly advised Benito that the Mare Nostrum was actually Our Sea and had little to do with his grandiose claims Exploding the Myth of Mussolini's 'Mare Nostrum (Britannia Naval Histories of World War II) by Mr M J Pearce (Author) ISBN-13: 978-1841024394. ISBN-10: 1841024392. Why is ISBN important? ISBN. This bar-code number lets you verify that you're getting exactly the right version or edition of a book.. See, for example, B. Ducati, Dal primo al secondo impero di Roma, ausilio allo studio della storia per gli alunni dell’ordine elementare (Milano: il Maglio, 1939), 71: ‘la quarta sponda del Mare Nostro’. TimesMachine is an exclusive benefit for home delivery and digital subscribers. Full text is unavailable for this digitized archive article. Subscribers may view the full text of this article in.

Italy - Italy - Foreign policy: As time passed, Fascist foreign policy became more expansionist. In particular, Mussolini aimed at acquiring territory in Africa and in the Mediterranean, for which he adopted the ancient Roman term mare nostrum (our sea). Even in 1923, in his first year in office, he briefly invaded the Greek island of Corfu to avenge the murder of four Italian nationals. Richard W. Clement, ‘The Mediterranean: What, Why, and How,’ Mediterranean Studies 20, no. 1 (2012): 114–120; Peregrine Horden and Nicholas Purcell, The Corrupting Sea: A Study of Mediterranean History (Oxford: Blackwell, 2000). Use. The Fascist regime made heavy use of propaganda, including pageantry and rhetoric, to inspire the nation into the unity that would obey.. At first, all propaganda efforts were grouped together under the press office; propaganda efforts were slowly organized until a Ministry of Popular Culture was created in 1937. A special propaganda ministry was created in 1935, with the avowed purpose.

Mussolini was substituted by the Maresciallo d'Italia Gen. Pietro Badoglio, who immediately declared in a famous speech "La guerra continua a fianco dell'Alleato Germanico" ("War continues at the side of our German allies"), but was instead working to negotiate a surrender; in a few days (Sep. the 8th) Badoglio would sign a armistice with allied troops. Giusti points to an article from 2018 on the alt-right website Giovani a Destra, which argues that ‘Aeneas was not a migrant, and above all, was not a Turk’. In this article, Federica Ciampa argues that Turks only settled on the Anatolian Peninsula in 1100 CE, while the Trojan War is generally dated to around 1250 bce. Thus, Aeneas could not have been a Turk. Additionally, from the mythical point of view, the article argues that Dardanus settled in Anatolia, having migrated from Arcadia in Greece. According to Virgil, however, Dardanus originated from Etruria. Aeneas, then, as a descendent of Dardanus, was Italian, and Italy was already his homeland. The article goes on to state that Aeneas did not flee war, because he only left Troy after the war was over and after fighting valiantly alongside his compatriots. He is a profugus only because of providential fate. The article concludes: ‘It seems clear, therefore, that there are no Aeneases among the new migrants: they do not return to their homeland; they do not go to uninhabited and economically prosperous places, but, on the contrary, they head towards an Italy that has other important emergencies to face in this historical period.’79

Maritime Monday for March 05, 2012 – Mare Nostrum, Part

Italy - Foreign policy Britannic

He was then sent to Gran Sasso, a mountain recovery in central Italy (Abruzzo), in complete isolation. Mare nostrum (latin 'vårt hav') var det romerska namnet för Medelhavet.Det har på senare år kommit att återanvändas både inom politik och idrott. Senare användning. Termen blev använd igen av Benito Mussolini, [1] som fascistisk propaganda liknande Adolf Hitlers Lebensraum.. Begreppet har gett namn åt en återkommande tävlingsserie i simning med samma namn - Mare Nostrum.

Mare Nostrum: Italy and the Mediterranean of Ancient Rome

Italiaans-Noord-Afrika - Wikipedia

Italian Mare Nostrum Facts for Kid

Mussolini's niece Alessandra, daughter of Romano Mussolini, has served as a deputy in the Republican Chamber representing the Alleanza Nazionale party for Naples. 1. MARE NOSTRUM - the war in Mussolini's lake from June 1940 to the Axis surrender in North Africa in 1943 2. Operation Compass - the British riposte to the misjudged Italian invasion of Egypt 3. Operation Sonnenblum - Enter the Desert Fox, Rommel is in Africa, and is looking to drive the British back to Alexandria. 4 For a problematization of this narrative, see Robert Miles, ‘A Rise of Racism and Fascism in Contemporary Europe? Some Sceptical Reflections on its Nature and Extent,’ Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 20, no. 4 (1994): 547–562, https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.1994.9976453. For the appeal of CasaPound within the context of the consequences of the 2008 financial crisis, see Pietro Castelli Gattinara, Catterina Froio, and Matteo Albanese, ‘The Appeal of Neo-Fascism in Times of Crisis: The Experience of CasaPound ­Italia,’ Fascism: Journal of Comparative Fascist Studies 2 (2013): 234–258, https://doi.org/10.1163/22116257-00202007.

Regio Esercitochange change source

Italian warships had a general reputation as well-designed and good-looking. But some Italian cruiser classes were rather deficient in armour. All Italian warships lacked radar for most of the war, although the lack of radar was partly offset by the fact that Italian warships had good "rangefinder" and "fire-control" systems. In addition, whereas Allied commanders at sea had discretion on how to act, Italian commanders were closely and precisely governed by Italian Naval Headquarters (Supermarina). This could lead to action being avoided when the Italians had a clear advantage (e.g., During "Operation Hats" [8]. Italian Naval Headquarters was conscious that the British could replace ships lost in the Mediterranean, whereas Italian Navy resources were limited).Meanwhile, as early as the late 1860s, Italy had embarked on its colonial project in Africa, gaining its first African colonies in Assab, and Massawa in 1869 and 1885 respectively.17 With the opening of the Suez Canal in 1871, these East African coastal outposts were connected to the Mediterranean. As Domenico Tumiati wrote in his 1905 travelogue of Tripolitania, republished in 1911, ‘to the south, workers hurry in the Pharaonic sea [Red Sea], to tie Italian Eritrea to the Mediterranean, Tripolitania to Ethiopia’.18 Thus, although Italy had its eyes on a Mediterranean empire in emulation of Rome’s, the Suez Canal made East Africa a temporarily acceptable substitute. Welcome to Mare Nostrum Below you find the entire AAR without comments as a courtesy to new readers and those who just want to lean back and enjoy the full flavour of the story. Feel free to comment on the AAR in this tread Mare Nostrum Mare..

Benito Mussolini Archives - Foreign policy

Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini

Chambers, Mediterranean Crossings, 6. However, as France’s garrisoning of the Sahel under the auspices of the G5 ‘cross-border task force’ show, decolonization remains a slippery process. ‘G5 Sahel Joint Force and the Sahel Alliance,’ France Diplomatie, updated February 2019, accessed September 6, 2019, https://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/french-foreign-policy/defence-security/crisis-and-conflicts/g5-sahel-joint-force-and-the-sahel-alliance/.CasaPound Italia, ‘Sul fronte dell’essere: Le proposte di CasaPound sull’immigrazione,’ CasaPound Italia.org, 13 September 2013, accessed November 11, 2019, https://www.casapounditalia.org/sul-fronte-dellessere-le-proposte-di/; Cf. Giovani Gentile, Origins and Doctrine of Fascism (New Brunswick and London: Transaction Publishers, 2003) for the doctrine of original Italian Fascism. Comparison between Giovanni Gentile’s writings here and CasaPound’s ideology show the latter to be authentically fascist. See also Daniele Di Nunzio and Emanuele Toscano, Dentro E Fuori Casapound (Roma: Armando, 2011), 118, and Eugenia Zena, “‘Fascisti del Terzo Millennio? No, solo Fascisti”: The Politics of ­CasaPound,’ E-International Relations Students.info, 5 October 2018, accessed September 6, 2019, https://www.e-ir.info/2018/10/05/fascisti-del-terzo-millennio-no-solo-fascisti-the-politics-of-casapound/.

Mare Nostrum Facts for Kid

  1. Corradini, L’ora di Tripoli, 227–8. Cf. Welch, Vital Subjects, chapters 1 and 2 for the discourse of Northern Italy’s educative, civilising mission in the Southern Italy.
  2. When the Libyan Civil War broke out on the centenary year of Italy’s invasion of Tripolitania, Ghaddafi reopened the migration routes across the Mediterranean.68 Now that the flow of people had taken on a south to north orientation across the waters mythologized in the Italian imagination as mare nostrum, Italy turned its back on the sea and the continent to which, as heirs of the Roman Empire, they had previously claimed a birth-right. After the tragic shipwrecks off the coast of Lampedusa in October 2013, which brought migrant deaths to the forefront of the European public imagination, Italy could no longer be seen to totally abnegate its responsibilities over its ex-colonies or the waters previously claimed as its own. In the same month as the Lampedusa shipwrecks, Italy instituted Operation Mare Nostrum, a military-humanitarian mission which conceptualized the Mediterranean as a humanitarian ‘battlefield’.69 Thus, the idea of Italy’s mare nostrum had made a return in a different guise. The emphasis of this operation was that of policing mare nostrum – fingerprinting arrivals, prosecuting smugglers, and deterring further migration.70 Even so, the humanitarian aspect of the Italian naval operation proved to be unpopular, criticized as a state-operated ferry service for migrants.71
  3. He wanted to take revenge and above all prove who was boss of the Mediterranean or Mare Nostrum, i.e. Italy and not Nasserist Egypt as far as Mussolini was concerned. Nasser provided him with the necessary casus belli in October 1956 when he nationalized the Suez Canal, which until then had been jointly owned by Britain, France and to a.
Legacy Timepieces: Panerai Radiomir, The WWII “Dive” Watch

Italian Mare Nostrum - Simple English Wikipedia, the free

  1. In 1942 Mussolini dreamed to create a Greater Italia in his "Mare Nostrum" and promoted the fascist project -to be realized in a future peace conference after the expected Axis victory- of an enlarged Italian Empire, stretching from the Mediterranean shores of Egypt to the Indian Ocean shores of Somalia and eastern Kenya. All these projects disappeared with the final Italian defeat of September 1943.
  2. g his earlier aversion to Adolf Hitler, he signed a treaty creating an alliance with Nazi Germany
  3. See Jürgen Leonhardt, Latin: Story of a World Language (Cambridge, MA.: Belknap, 2016); see also Han Lamers and Bettina Reitz-Joosse, ‘Lingua Lictoria: The Latin Literature of Italian Fascism,’ Classical Receptions Journal 8, no. 2 (2016) 216–252, https://doi.org/10.1093/crj/clv001; Han Lamers, Bettina Reitz-Joosse, and Dirk Sacré, ‘Neo-Latin Literature – Italy: Fascism (1922–1943),’ in Brill’s Encyclopaedia of the Neo-Latin World: Micropaedia, ed. Philp Ford, Jan Bloemendal, and Charles Fantazzi (Leiden: Brill, 2014), 1091–1096, for Latin as a universal language under Italian Fascism.
  4. Some wag is using an image of the Roman Empire in Latin that doesn't include the namespace term. Might want to get one that actually says "Mare Nostrum" instead of "Mare Internum." — LlywelynII 07:51, 29 August 2011 (UTC)

In October 2013, the world watched on in stunned horror as news broke that two refugee boats off the coast of the Italian island of Lampedusa had shipwrecked, claiming more than six hundred lives. In response, Italy launched its military-humanitarian operation Mare Nostrum in the Mediterranean.8 By publicly evoking the memory of Rome’s imperial hegemony over the Mediterranean in the name of this operation, Italy was reviving vocabulary drawn from Roman antiquity which, in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, had been excavated to legitimise Italian claims to sovereignty over the sea and the lands of the opposite shore. The name of the operation therefore represented one of the most recent chapters of the afterlife of this ancient claim to the Mediterranean, which had re-emerged time and again for over two millennia. That's why the Romans called it mare nostrum. Additionally, this thesis is concerned with endeavours to restore the Roman Empire to its former glory that were active in all phases of its historical development following its disintegration. However, only Mussolini's new activist and aggressive policy made these plans more concrete and to a. The Italian Regia Aeronautica entered the war with 3296 airplanes (1332 Bombers and 1160 "Caccia", as were called the Fighters in Italian) distributed in all the Italian Empire, but only 1796 were in perfect fighting conditions. Most were old "wood" models, and could not match the British aircraft in 1940.If one can imagine that a country, inseparably linked through two thousand years with the fortune of Rome and Italy, a country which on one hand is an imminent danger for our sea frontier [because of the North African theatre of war], a country which the Italians over almost two thousand years has made to flourish and re-flourish with their intelligence, with their enthusiasm and work, how can one violate with arms and with impunity these Italians?50

What does mare nostrum mean and what was its significance

The only four engine heavy bomber of the Regia Aeronautica was the Piaggio P.108 B. In the 274th Long-Range Bombardment group these bombers made many long range bombardments of Gibraltar from Sardinia in summer 1942 [4] and reinforced in this way the Regia Aeronautica supremacy during those of months in the Italian Mare Nostrum.In antiquity, Roman hegemony in the Mediterranean depended on the defeat of Carthage. According to the first century CE historian Polybius, Rome’s victory in the Second Punic War, fought between 218 and 201 bce against Hannibal, gave unity to the region. He writes, ‘up to this time it had been as if history was that of the scattered deeds of the world … . But from this time, it was as if history becomes one of a single body [σωματοειδῆ συμβαίνει], the affairs of Italians and Libyans are intertwined with those of Asia and the Greeks and everything is brought to a single end’.9 Polybius’ history, then, is at least in part about how the Mediterranean became united as the mare nostrum of the Romans.

Mare Nostrum - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedi

I have just modified one external link on Mare Nostrum. Please take a moment to review my edit. If you have any questions, or need the bot to ignore the links, or the page altogether, please visit this simple FaQ for additional information. I made the following changes: Start studying Unit 6: Mussolini's Foreign Policy and the Spanish Civil War. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools The Italian fleet also took advantage of the situation and moved onto the offensive, blocking or decimating at least three large Allied convoys bound for Malta. This led to a number of naval engagements, such as the Second Battle of Sirte, the Battle of Mid-June or Operation Harpoon (plus Operation Vigorous) and finally to Operation Pedestal, all of them favourable to the Axis but sufficient supplies had been delviered to Malta for it to survive as a British base. The biggest success of the Italian Fleet was the aerial and surface attack on the Harpoon convoy, which sank several Allied warships and damaged others. Only two transports of the original six reached Malta. This was the only undisputed squadron-size victory for Italian surface forces in World War II. The Duce was survived by his wife, Donna Rachele, by two sons, Vittorio and Romano Mussolini, and his daughter Edda, the widow of Count Ciano. A third son, Bruno, had been killed in an air accident while testing a military plane. ‘Missing Migrants: Tracking Deaths along Migratory Routes,’ accessed September 6, 2019, www.missingmigrants.iom.int; Maurizio Albahari, Crimes of Peace: Mediterranean Migrations at the World’s Deadliest Border (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015).

Following an AfD on another article, there is a merge discussion here. Comments are invited. Xyl 54 (talk) 17:21, 30 June 2011 (UTC) When France collapsed in 1940, Mussolini started to expand the Italian maritime control on the central Mediterranean, attacking British possessions. The ensuing Battle of the Mediterranean had many changes of fortune and finished with the victory of the Allies.However, the nation that really dominated the Mediterranean in 1940 was the United Kingdom, as the British had strong naval bases in Gibraltar, Malta and Cyprus. The British also controlled the Suez Canal, along with the French; the French Third Republic had a relatively powerful navy, and controlled the African Maghreb. Only after the conquest of Greece and Yugoslavia, in April 1941, Mussolini started to talk about an Italian dominated Mediterranean sea. One of the most renown and important branches of the Regia Aeronautica was the "torpedo bomber" group. In 1941 and 1942, Italian pilots, mostly flying the three-engined, medium bomber Savoia-Marchetti SM.79 "Sparviero" [3], inflicted considerable losses to Allied shipping in the Mediterranean Sea. Panerai returns once more to what they call Our Sea.The Panerai Mare Nostrum Chronograph PAM716 (PAM00716) is a surprise, mid-2017 release from Officine Panerai that actually harkens back to not only its pre-Richemont days, but also to the brand's first chronograph, produced during World War IIor some time after

My life under Mussolini improved for women and myself all over Italy. I have become much more independent and Mussolini helped me get on my feet again, he is the reason that women including myself found medical advice through all stages of their pregnancy, even after my baby was born. I believe Mussolini will bring us Mare Nostrum and we. Mare Nostrum, latin för Vårt hav var romarnas namn på Medelhavet. Åren runt 1861 då den italienska återuppståndelsen (il Risorgimento) var i sitt slutskede började italienska nationalister använda namnet Mare Nostrum för att de ansåg sig vara efterträdarna till det romerska riket.. Romarna. Efter att romarna lagt Korsika, Sardinien och Sicilien under sitt rike efter de Puniska.

Mussolini calls the Mediterranean 'mare nostrum', or 'our sea', and seeks to exploit it. British and Greek military forces, however, defeat the Italians, forcing the Germans to send the Afrika Korps Mussolini calls the Mediterranean mare nostrum (our sea) and seeks to exploit it. British and Greek military forces, however, defeat the Italians, forcing the Germans to send the Afrika Korps When World War II started, Italy already controlled the north and south shores of the middle part of the Mediterranean. The western part was controlled by Spain and France. The eastern part by Greece, Turkey and the British Empire. In 1940 the fall of France removed the main threat from the west. At the same time Italy invaded Greece and Egypt and attacked the island of Malta. Mussolini talked about making the Mediterranean "an Italian lake". The Axis (Italy and Germany together) defeated Greece, but could not defeat the British in Egypt. For the next three years they fought many battles there (called the Western Desert Campaign). The British and Italian navies also fought at sea (this is called the Battle of the Mediterranean). By 1943 the Axis in North Africa had been beaten and in September 1943 Italy was invaded and forced to surrender.

Istituto di Studi Romani, I Moderni carthagi: Mare Nostrum ii (Rome: Istituto di Studi Romani, 1940). On the propagandistic function of the isr, see Jan Nelis, ‘La “fede di Roma” nella modernità totalitaria fascista: Il mito della romanità e l’Istituto di Studi Romani tra Carlo Galassi Paluzzi e Giuseppe Bottai,’ Studi Romani 58, no. 1–4 (2010): 359–381; Jan Nelis, ‘Back to the Future: Italian Fascist Representations of the Roman Past,’ Fascism: Journal of Comparative Fascist Studies 3 (2014): 1–19, https://doi.org/10.1163/22116257-00301001. The myth of mare nostrum underwent significant changes in the modern era. Both before and after Italian unification, Italy was seen as neither Africa nor Europe, its physical position in the middle of the sea no doubt contributing to its perceived liminality. Indeed, Italy’s heterogeneity and uneven development between north and south gave rise to a Torinese saying that Garibaldi did not unite Italy, he divided Africa.13 Northern Italy’s colonial attitudes towards the South of the new state served as a discursive and practical laboratory for overseas colonialism, through which the advocates for imperialism hoped to, having made Italy, ‘make Italians’.14 The Mediterranean, as mare nostrum, played a pivotal role in the articulation of a discourse of empire which served to unify the fragmented limbs of the young Italian state.It is significant that Africa, in this essay in Il volere d’Italia, is Roman Africa, rather than the modern continent. In the National Archaeological Museum, Corradini meets the art critic and philosopher Angelo Conti, a regular contributor to the review Il Marzocco. Scarcely had Corradini told Conti that he was planning on going to Tunisia, Corradini writes, then, The Mediterranean sea is our Italian Mare Nostrum. The function of a citizen and a soldier are inseparable. He is a pederast. Said about Hitler before the two were allies (he accused Hitler of assassinating his friend, Austrian dictator Engelbert Dollfuß). Another new quot Mussolini boasted about his new army of ten million bayonets, the industrial base, modern technology, new tanks, and weapons were all lacking. He sought to create a modern Roman Empire, referring to the Mediterranean Sea as Mare Nostrum (Our Sea), but Italy was not up to the task

Talk:Mare Nostrum - Wikipedi

Mussolini had a vision of reforming the glories of the Roman Empire by regaining the territory surrounding the Mediterranean mare nostrum. From the outset of Italy's intervention in WWII - Italian leadership demonstrated incompetence - 35% of Italian merchant shipping was in hostile shorelines Maddalena G. Cammelli, ‘Fascism as a Style of Life: Community Life and Violence in a Neofascist Movement in Italy,’ Focaal 79 (2017): 89–101, https://doi.org/10.3167/fcl.2017.790108. Mussolini's foreign policy ambitions: the restoration of prestige; the Mediterranean and 'Mare Nostrum'; empire in Africa Mussolini the statesman: relations with Britain and France; Italian influence in Austria; the Stresa Fron However, this was only a brief happy time for Mussolini. The oil and supplies brought to Malta, despite heavy losses, by Operation Pedestal in August and the Allied landings in North Africa, Operation Torch, in November 1942, turned the fortunes of war against Italy. After years of stalemate, the Axis forces were ejected from Libya and Tunisia in six months after the Battle of El Alamein, while their supply lines were harassed day after day by the growing and overwhelming aerial and naval supremacy of the Allies in what has just been the Mussolini's "Italian Mare Nostrum".During these months the Regia Marina even planned an attack to New York harbour for December 1942, but it was delayed for many reasons and was never done [9].

Bibliographychange change source

From its East African possessions, Italy attempted to encroach into Ethiopian territory, leading, in 1887, to a disastrous defeat at the hands of Ras Alula at Dogali. The defeat was commemorated in a series of essays by the nationalist publicist Alfredo Oriani, collected in a volume entitled Fino a Dogali [‘until Dogali’]. Although he died in 1909, Oriani would later be claimed by the ideologues of Fascism as a proto-Fascist, to the extent that Mussolini is even credited with editing Oriani’s collected works.19 His writings, then, offer important clues as to how Italian Fascism perceived its own origins. In this volume, first published in 1889 but republished in 1912, the year following Italy’s invasion of Tripolitania, Italy’s claims to an African empire were centred on the Mediterranean. The new nation’s embarkation on its imperial mission was heralded by Oriani as Rome’s re-entry into history, ‘sail[ing] one more time on its sea, [as the] bringer of a new civilisation’.20 However, at the time of Oriani’s writing, Italy would still have to wait more than two decades before returning to the African shores of the Mediterranean long ago colonised by Rome. Mussolini droomde van een herstel van het Romeinse Rijk en hij beschouwde het Middellandse Zeegebied als Italiaanse invloedssfeer omdat de Romeinen de Middellandse Zee ooit Mare Nostrum, 'onze zee', hadden kunnen noemen.Hij liet zijn oog vallen op Ethiopië, naast Liberia het enige land in Afrika dat geen kolonie was. Het had de Italiaanse legers in 1896 verslagen toen deze een poging deden. Sources: Search Beat. Photos: USHMM and National Archives

Italy's foreign policy - History Learning Sit

See Roberta Viola, ‘“L’Italia non va, ritorna”: Intervento in Libia e opinione nazionalista,’ in Mare Nostrum: Percezione ottomana e mito mediterraneo in Italia all’alba del ‘900, ed. Stefano Trinchese (Milan: Gerini Studio, 2005), 97–147, for the broader nationalist discourse on the Italian invasion of Libya.The only four engine heavy bomber of the Regia Aeronautica was the Piaggio P.108 B. In the 274th Long-Range Bombardment group these bombers made many long range bombardments of Gibraltar from Sardinia in summer 1942 [4] and reinforced in this way the Regia Aeronautica supremacy during those of months in the Italian Mare Nostrum. Rodolfo Graziani, Cirenaica Pacificata (Milan: Mondadori, 1932), 301. The words often attributed to Cato the Elder when he urged for the destruction of Carthage in 146 bce, censeo Carthaginem esse delendam, abbreviated to Carthago delenda est [I advise that Carthage must be destroyed, or Carthage must be destroyed], appears to be a modern synthesis of words taken from a number of ancient sources. Nevertheless, the substitution of an ancient African enemy of Roman imperialism for a modern African one of Italian imperialism in Graziani’s work is emblematic of Fascism’s self-representation as the new Roman Empire. On Cato’s phrase, see Charles E. Little, ‘The Authenticity and Form of Cato’s Saying “Carthago Delenda Est”,’ The Classical Journal 29, no. 6 (1934): 429–435. Episode 67-Mare Nostrum Mussolini would pay back Hitler in his own coin by invading Greece without first telling his Axis partner. But the Greek people, for all their worldblog.net industrial limitations were angry with the Italians and their Dictator Ioannis Metaxas, had the experience to.. 001Login to reply the answersPostjannielLv 61 decade agoMare nostrum neans 'Our Sea' and refers to the Mediterranean Sea. Mussolini already had some colonial territory in North Africa and was keen to expand it, and one way was to expand the Italian Navy to achieve naval supremacy in the Mediterranean to support his expansionist ambitions and increase Italian influence, control trade routes and stratgic positions . This was not popular with Britain and France who already had large navies in the area and their own colonial and strategic interests dependant on the Mediterranean.During WW2 the Italian Fleet was crippled by the British at the Battle of Taranto and other actions.

Italy's Mare Nostrum Military Wiki Fando

  1. Italian Mare Nostrum was the name given during World War II, by Benito Mussolini and his fascist propaganda to the Mediterranean Sea, when was under the control of the Kingdom of Italy.
  2. Mussolini played up to his financial backers at first by transferring a number of industries from public to private ownership. But by the 1930's he had begun moving back to the opposite extreme of rigid governmental control of industry. A great deal of money was spent on public works. But the economy suffered from his exaggerated attempt to make Italy self-sufficient. There was too much concentration on heavy industry, for which Italy lacked the resources.
  3. The dream of Mussolini and his Fascist party was to recreate the glory of ancient Rome. The immediate goal was to control the Mediterranean Sea, making it again the Mare Nostrum (Our Sea) of the Caesars. To that end, Italy pursued its own war aims independent of Germany
  4. Mussolini was born in Predappio, near Forlì, in Romagna. His father, Alessandro, was a blacksmith, and his mother, Rosa Maltoni, was a teacher. It was his dream to make the Mediterranean mare nostrum (our sea in Latin). In 1935, at the Stresa Conference, he helped create an anti-Hitler front in order to defend the independence of Austria.
  5. Heather Hyde Minor, ‘Mapping Mussolini: Ritual and Cartography in Public Art during the Second Roman Empire,’ Imago Mundi 51, no. 1 (1999): 147–162, https://doi.org/10.1080/03085699908592907; see Antonio Muñoz, Roma di Mussolini (Milan: Treves, 1935), 221–222.

See Ali Abdullatif Ahmida, Forgotten Voices: Power and Agency in Colonial and Postcolonial Libya (New York and London: Routledge, 2005), 35–36; The Making of Modern Libya: State Formation, Colonization, and Resistance, 2nd edition (Albany, NY: suny Press, 2009) 103–140; David Atkinson, ‘Encountering Bare Life in Italian Libya and Colonial Amnesia in Agamben,’ in Agamben and Colonialism, ed. Marcelo Svirsky and Simone Bignall (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2012), 155–177.The Mediterranean is by far the deadliest region for migration in the world, and the central Mediterranean, the area between Libya and Italy, has seen the highest number of migrant casualties when compared with other parts of the Mediterranean.1 In June 2018, news media reported that the refugee rescue ship, the Aquarius, which patrolled the waters of the Mediterranean between Libya and Italy, had rescued about six hundred refugees from the sea. However, the far-right interior minister of Italy’s then newly installed government, Matteo Salvini, forbade the boat from docking at any Italian port. The mayor of Palermo, Leoluca Orlando, symbolically defied the Rome government’s injunction by offering his city as a port of refuge, explaining that ‘Palermo in ancient Greek meant “complete port”. We have always welcomed rescue boats and vessels who saved lives at sea. We will not stop now’.2 Orlando, by referring to the ancient Greek history of his city, was following a well-established precedent in framing the ongoing humanitarian emergency with reference to Classical, in this instance Greek, antiquity. The evocation of this pre-Roman, Greek history of a region of Italy offers a counter-narrative to discourses of Italian national unification anchored in Roman antiquity, suggesting plurality and diversity of origins in contrast to Roman antiquity which had been co-opted into totalising ideologies of nation and empire.3

Unit 6: Mussolini's Foreign Policy and the Spanish Civil Wa

  1. Rescued by the Germans several months later in a spectacular raid by Otto Skorzeny, Mussolini set up a Republican Fascist state (RSI - Repubblica Sociale Italiana) in northern Italy with him living in Gargnano. But he was little more than a puppet under the protection of the German Army. In this "Republic of Salo'", Mussolini returned to his earlier ideas of socialism and collectivization. He also executed some of the Fascist leaders who had abandoned him, including his son-in-law, Galeazzo Ciano.
  2. For more mare nostrum of pre-Fascist Italian imperialism in Africa, see for example, Tumiati, Nell’Africa Romana; Adriana M. Baranello, ‘Giovanni Pascoli’s “La grande proletaria si e’ mossa”: A Translation and Critical Introduction,’ California Italian Studies 2, no. 1 (2011), available at https://escholarship.org/uc/item/6jh07474, accessed September 6, 2019.
  3. Used Books Starting at $3.99. Free Shipping Available. Shop Now

Mare Nostrum Italiano - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libr

During these months the Regia Marina even planned an attack to New York harbour for December 1942, but it was delayed for many reasons and was never done [9]. In the spring of 1941, Mussolini seemed on the verge of realizing his dream of turning the Mediterranean into an Italian lake, or what the Fascists called mare nostrum (our sea, as the. In summer/autumn 1942 Italy controlled the European seashores of the Mediterranean from the Rhone river in occupied France to Mount Olympus in Aegean Greece. A similar situation happened in the African shores of the Mediterranean Sea, where Mussolini's control went from Tunisia to El Alamein in Egypt. This Italian domination was increased by the fact that most of the remaining shores of the Mediterranean were controlled by the fascist Spain of General Franco, the France of Vichy and the Turkey of Kemal Atatürk, all of them with friendliness toward Mussolini. Mare Nostrum translated means our sea. Mussolini used this along with Give italy a Place in the sun to refer to the mediterranean. 7 Acerbo law and Giacomo Matteoti. The Acerbo Law was pushed through parliament to guarantee two thirds majority in the chamber of deputies for the Political party that got the most votes. In 1924 this gave. Mussolini célkitűzése volt, hogy Olaszországot a Földközi-tenger medencéjének domináns hatalmává tegye. Ennek előképét a Római Birodalomban találta meg, amelyre propagandájában is gyakorta hivatkozott. A mare nostrum megszerzése érdekében a Duce hamarosan szakított kezdeti pacifista politikájával

Mare Nostrum - Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livr

  1. In the twenty-first century, the much-contested figure of Aeneas continues to be articulated into nationalist discourse. However, unlike twentieth-century nationalists’ use of Aeneas to promote imperialism as a means to consolidate national unification and ‘to make history’, the contemporary Italian right’s evocations of the legendary hero are reactionary and defensive against the perceived threat of immigration. In other words, rather than representing a figure for an expansionist conception of the Italian nation, Aeneas is reconfigured to stand for a contracting, narrowly defined nation, in terms of territory and ethnicity.
  2. Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 Julie 1883 - 28 April 1945) het Italië regeer as 'n diktator vanaf 1922 tot 1943.Hy was die stigter van 'n anti-demokratiese, fascistiese staat deur gebruik te maak van propaganda; deur die totale beheer van die media, het hy die bestaande demokratiese regeringstelsel afgebreek. Anders as die Nasionaal-Sosialistiese bewind in die Duitse Ryk het Mussolini.
  3. El Mediterráneo era llamado Mare Nostrum (que en latín significaba «Nuestro Mar») durante los siglos del Imperio romano, un imperio que el fascismo quería resucitar después de la conquista italiana de Etiopía en 1936.. Mussolini deseaba crear de nuevo la potencia de la Antigua Roma en el Mediterráneo y consideraba que Italia - en vísperas de la segunda guerra mundial - era la.

Mussolini, a história não contada. Minissérie Completa com Dublagem Clássica exibida pelo SBT em 1989. Victory At Sea - Episode 08 ~ Mare Nostrum (Complete Episode) - Duration: 26:23. Mare Nostrum (nosso mar, em latim) era o nome dado pelos antigos romanos para o mar Mediterrâneo.Nos anos após a unificação da Itália, em 1861, o termo foi revivido por nacionalistas italianos, que acreditavam que o país era o sucessor do Império Romano, [2] e devia procurar controlar os territórios que pertenceram a Roma por todo o Mediterrâneo Mussolini became the Prime Minister of Italy in 1922. He brought back old statues and built new ones. He also rebuilt some old building and homes that have been ruined during some of the war and battles. Mussolinis dream was to change the name of the Mediterranean into Mare Nostrum. Which means Our Sea

But in April 1941, when Italy started together with the Germans the coordinated Axis attack in the Mediterranean (in the Balkans and in Libya), the Italian Air Force had the new and competitive Macchi C.202, able to fight successfully the British Spitfires. These airplanes (with the new Reggiane Re.2002) took control of the Malta and Libyan airspace (together with the German military aircraft) during the successful campaign of General Rommel in Tobruk.On the same night, Force K, comprising three cruisers and four destroyers based at Malta, became stranded in an Italian minefield off Tripoli. A cruiser (HMS Neptune) and a destroyer (HMS Kandahar) were lost, three other ships were seriously damaged, and more than 900 men died. Force K was put out of action and Malta's offensive capabilities were reduced to a minimum.

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Mussolini spoke of making the Mediterranean Italy's Mare Nostrum, Our Sea. Putin regards former parts of the (Tsarist) Russian and Soviet Empires as Russia's natural space Essentially, making the Mediterranean into an Italian sea. Mare Nostrum, remember ?More immediately, a lot of irredentist claims. Perhaps Savoy and more of the Riviera from France - essentially taking back the Italian speaking Hapsburg lands and t.. Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (Predappio, 29 de julho de 1883 — Mezzegra, 28 de abril de 1945) foi um político italiano que liderou o Partido Nacional Fascista e é creditado como sendo uma das figuras-chave na criação do fascismo.Tornou-se o primeiro-ministro da Itália em 1922 e começou a usar o título Il Duce desde 1925, onde abandonou qualquer estética democrática do seu.

Italy (Mussolini) - Civilization V Customization Wik

  1. If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
  2. ation of the Kingdom of Italy.
  3. Italy was an ally to Nazi Germany during WW2 and entered the war in June 1940. Italy was ruled by a fascist regime under the rule of Benito Mussolini, who was driven by imperialist ambitions to restore the Roman Empire in the Mediterranean (Mare Nostrum, Latin for Our sea)
  4. Faced with increasing pressure from the anti-immigration right in the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis, the Italian government was pressured into acting decisively. Thus, in 2008, in exchange for financial and political concessions, as well as some reparations for Italy’s colonial atrocities in Libya, Ghaddafi promised oil and agreed with Berlusconi to cooperate with Italy to control migration across the Mediterranean.65 As a symbol of this rapprochement between these countries, Italy returned to Libya the stolen Venus of Cyrene, a Roman statue excavated in colonial Libya.66 This ancient artefact embodied the long, multi-layered history of the relationship between Italy and Libya, played out across more than two millennia: from imperialisms ancient and modern, where the Mediterranean fulfilled its role as mare nostrum for Italy, to the twenty-first century, when mare nostrum becomes ‘mare aliorum’ – someone else’s sea.67
  5. Romanelli, Roma e l’Africa, 18. For Genseric see Averil Cameron, ‘The Vandal Conquest and Vandal rule (A.D. 429–534),’ in The Cambridge Ancient History, vol. 14: Late Antiquity: Empire and Successors, A.D. 425–600. xiv, ed. Averil Cameron, Bryan Ward-Perkins, Michael Whitby (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 553–559.
  6. Gabriele D’Annunzio, Più che l’amore (Milan: Treves, 1907), 46–47. D’Annunzio is particularly important for his influence on early Fascism, and for discussion on the continuity of pre-Fascist and Fascist romanità. Instituting the ‘Roman salute’ as a nationalist symbol during his irredentist occupation of Rijeka (Fiume), 1919–1920, he was also a vocal proponent of overseas Italian imperialism. See Marielle Cagnetta, ‘Idea di Roma, colonialismo e nazionalismo nell’opera di D’Annunzio,’ Quaderni del Vittorale 23 (1980): 169–186; Martin M. Winkler, The Roman Salute: Cinema, History, Ideology (Columbus: The Ohio State University Press, 2009), 94–112.
  7. The Italian Army (Regio Esercito) entered the war with 73 divisions (and one fascist Legion of "Blackshirts"), but only 19 were fully operational for combat in June 1940. Italy during the first years of WWII had only small and medium tanks (Fiat M13/40 and Fiat M15/42), that were no match for the Allies tanks. Only in summer 1943 the Italians developed a heavy tank (the P40 tank) [5], but just 5 were ready for combat when Italy signed the armistice. The Italian Army had good antitanks (like the Semovente 75/18) [6] and reliable armoured cars (like the AB 41) [7].

Mare Nostrum Mare Nostrum: This ancient motto known to the Greeks Byzantines and Turks was the embodiment of the a navy dreamed by Mussolini. Il Duce indeed tried to restore in modern times the greatness of the Empire Roman, a perfect nationalistic theme that fit its ego and ambition for Italy in the XXth Century In the 1880's some Italians became interested in nationalism. Other European countries had made colonies in Africa (called the "Scramble for Africa"). They wanted Italy to have African colonies too. The term mare nostrum was used again by the Italian poet Emilio Lipi Mussolini, enthralled with the victorious progress of the Panzer Army Africa was delighted to call the Mediterranian Mare Nostrum Luftflotte 2 (under the reliable Kesselring) would be the prime mover When World War II started, Italy already controlled the north and south shores of the middle part of the Mediterranean. The western part was controlled by Spain and France. The eastern part by Greece, Turkey and the British Empire. In 1940 the fall of France removed the main threat from the west. At the same time Italy invaded Greece and Egypt and attacked the island of Malta. Mussolini talked about making the Mediterranean "an Italian lake". The Axis (Italy and Germany together) defeated Greece, but could not defeat the British in Egypt. For the next three years they fought many battles there (called the Western Desert Campaign). The British and Italian navies also fought at sea (this is called the Battle of the Mediterranean). By 1943 the Axis in North Africa had been beaten and in September 1943 Italy was invaded and forced to surrender.

011Login to reply the answersPostTimothy M1 decade agoMussolini dreamed of recreating the Roman empire which was centered on mare nostrum.As World War II approached, Mussolini announced his intention of annexing Malta, Corsica, and Tunis. In April 1939, after a brief struggle, he occupied Albania. Failing to realize that he had more to gain by trying to hold the balance of power in Europe, he preferred to rely on a policy of bluff and bluster to induce the Western democracies to give way to his increasing territorial demands. The fact that Italy had began its military buildup before other powers became a disadvantage as by 1939, its military infrastructure was becoming obsolete. His armed forces were completely unprepared when Hitler's invasion of Poland led to World War II. He decided to remain "nonbelligerant" until he was quite certain which side would win. U vanjskoj politici Mussolini je uskoro od pacifista postao agresivni imperijalist; rani primjer toga je bombardiranje Krfa 1923. godine. Uskoro nakon toga uspio je upostaviti kvislinški režim u Albaniji i ponovo osvojiti Libiju. Njegov je san bio od Sredozemlja učiniti mare nostrum (naše more - kao u rimsko doba) Pietro Romanelli, Roma e l’Africa: Quaderni dell’Imperi: Roma e il Mediterraneo (Spoleto: Reale Istituto di Studi Romani, 1943), 18.

There were a series of surface actions (e.g., Battle of Cape Matapan, Battle of Punta Stilo, Battle of Cape Teulada, Second Battle of Sirte, Battle of Mid-June, Battle of Mid-August [1]) between Allied navies and the Italian Regia Marina, during which the British, able to replace losses with warships redeployed from other theatres, finally gained the upper hand. Benito Mussolini was an Italian leader who founded Fascism in Italy. Discover more about His Excellency, Benito Mussolini. Benito Mussolini. Birth Date: 29 July 1883 Died on: 28 April 1945 Nationality: Italian Founder: Fascism Profession: Politician, Journalist, Novelist, Teacher. Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini was born in Dovia di Predappio, Italy, on July 29, 1883 The Romans called it mare nostrum (our sea). Italy was/is between the eastern and western basins of the Mediterranean. Mediterranean Sea Mussolini regarded the Mediterranean as his. Benito Mussolini, La Fondazione dell’Impero: Nei discorsi del duce alle grandi adunate del populo italiano con una traduzione latina di Nicola Festa (Naples: Rispoli, 1936).

The Regia Marina performed well and bravely in its North African convoy duties, but remained at a technical disadvantage. The Italian ships relied on a speed advantage, but could easily be damaged by shell or torpedo, due to their relatively thin armour. The fatal and final blow to the Italian Navy was a shortage of fuel, which forced her main units to remain at anchor for most of the last year of the Italian alliance with Germany [10].The name "Mare Nostrum" was chosen for a conference by the Society for Mediterranean Law and Culture. It was held in June 2012 at the University of Cagliari in Sardinia.[7] What they meant by the term was the full diversity of Mediterranean cultures, especially for exchanges and cooperation among Mediterranean nations.[7] All the overseas possessions of Italy in the Mediterranean Sea (Dodecanese, Libya, Saseno island, etc.) were lost formally as a result of the Treaty of peace with Italy (1947).

World War II CausesUltranationalism in Italy timeline | Timetoast timelines301 Moved Permanently

See Roberto M. Dainotto, ‘The European-ness of Italy: Categories and Norms,’ Annali d’Italianistica 24 (2006): 19–39; see also Welch, Vital Subjects, for the myth that Italian racism was new in the 1980s, aside from the Fascist ‘parenthesis’, as a result of newly rigid categories of Europeanness and non-Europeanness, and the rigidification of Italian national identities in the face of immigration.After a 2013 shipwreck near Lampedusa when many migrants from Africa had to be rescued. The Italian government increased its patrolling of the Mediterranean Sea. It called this "Operation Mare Nostrum", which was a military and humanitarian operation to rescue the migrants and arrest the traffickers of immigrants.The association between Italian imperialism in Africa and the Punic Wars is a major theme in Italian imperial romanità. The same year as Graziani’s Cirenaica Pacificata also saw the inauguration of the Foro Mussolini, and the installation of the Codex Fori Mussolini which was buried under the complex’s monumental obelisk. Amatucci’s neo-Latin Codex told the story of Fascism within the vocabulary of the opening of book 21 of Livy’s Ab Urbe Condita, drawing parallels between the first decade of the ventennio fascista and the Second Punic War. See Han Lamers and Bettina Reitz-Joosse, The Codex Fori Mussolini: A Latin Text of Italian Fascism (London: Bloomsbury, 2016). Mare Nostrum: Mussolini Dönemi'nde Türkiye'de İtalyan Mimarlar, Arkeologlar ve Seyyahlar (1922-1943), Erhan Berat Fındıklı, İstanbul, Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Yayınevi, 2018, s.11 SALT Araştırma'dan erişilebilir

Rule 5: Seized Suez and Gibraltar in 1939, and enforced a strict Mare Nostrum to any allied ships in the area, French fleet got decimated. Went wild in Africa with a few troops and Ethiopians volunteers Italy controlled (directly or indirectly) the seashores of these Mediterranean countries, when Mussolini spoke and boasted of an "Italian Mare Nostrum" in 1941/1942/1943:Claudio Fogu, ‘From Mare Nostrum to Mare Aliorum: Mediterranean Theory and Mediterraneism in Contemporary Italian Thought,’ California Italian Studies 1 (2010): 1–23, available at https://escholarship.org/uc/item/7vp210p4.

PPT - Mussolini’s Foreign Policy PowerPoint Presentation

The Italian Regia Aeronautica entered the war with 3296 airplanes (1332 Bombers and 1160 "Caccia", as were called the Fighters in Italian) distributed in all the Italian Empire, but only 1796 were in perfect fighting conditions. Most were old "wood" models, and could not match the British aircraft in 1940. The Battle of Taranto in 1940 was a successful air attack on the Italian Navy at anchor when 21 British torpedo bombers sunk one battleship and damaged two others.The Italian Navy slowly recovered from that attack, later copied by the Japanese in Pearl Harbour. It was called Mare Nostrum (Our Sea) by Benito Mussolini and his Fascist stalwarts, but the Italian navy, or Regia Marina, still understood it was an open question as to who would rule the Mediterranean in 1941.In fact, Operation Gaudo, a plan to sweep the Royal Navy from the waters surrounding Crete, was intended to demonstrate, after a number of one-sided encounters, that the Italians were. Mare Nostrum - Again, 1918-1945. I. While most naval action within the Mediterranean during the First World War took place in the east and in the Adriatic, in waters that lapped the shores of the disintegrating empires of the Ottomans and the Habsburgs, the entire Mediterranean became the setting for rivalry between 1918 and 1939. 1 At the centre of the struggle for mastery of the.

Italy is a peninsula, meaning it is encompassed by the sea on all of its sides apart from one side of the country (its north side).Northern Italy is separated from France, Switzerland, and Austria by the Alps, a chain of mountains. Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco in Italian or white mountain in English), the highest mountain in western Europe, belongs to this chain Iain Chambers, Mediterranean Crossings: The Politics of an Interrupted Modernity (Durham, NC and London: Duke University Press, 2008), 39.

Only at the beginning of 1943 appeared the modern Macchi C.205 and Reggiane Re.2005, but they could not match the overwhelming superiority of the American Air Force. There were a series of surface actions (e.g., Battle of Cape Matapan, Battle of Punta Stilo, Battle of Cape Teulada, Second Battle of Sirte, Battle of Mid-June, Battle of Mid-August [1]) between Allied navies and the Italian Regia Marina, during which the British, able to replace losses with warships redeployed from other theatres, finally gained the upper hand. Mare Nostrum: Mediterranean Command, 1940-1942 Mussolini calls the Mediterranean mare nostrum--our sea. And seeks to exploit it to the full. British and Greek military forces, however, defeat the Italians, forcing the Germans to bring in the Afrika Korps. But it is in the heroic sea battles to take over the Mediterranean that is the crux Mussolini was struck on the nose and though he bled copiously, he lost only a divot of flesh and was soon off, bandaged, to carry on; plans of Il Duce, Mare Nostrum and the creation, he thought, of his Augustan Empire When Italy entered World War II on 10 June 1940, the Italian Royal Navy (Regia Marina) was the fourth largest navy in the world. The Italian Navy had a mix of modernised and new battleships and challenged the Allies, mostly the British Royal Navy, for supremacy of the Mediterranean Sea.

The Italian fleet also took advantage of the situation and moved onto the offensive, blocking or decimating at least three large Allied convoys bound for Malta. This led to a number of naval engagements, such as the Second Battle of Sirte, the Battle of Mid-June or Operation Harpoon (plus Operation Vigorous) and finally to Operation Pedestal, all of them favourable to the Axis but sufficient supplies had been delviered to Malta for it to survive as a British base. The biggest success of the Italian Fleet was the aerial and surface attack on the Harpoon convoy, which sank several Allied warships and damaged others. Only two transports of the original six reached Malta. This was the only undisputed squadron-size victory for Italian surface forces in World War II.The blank space of the Mediterranean and Italy’s fourth shore served an important function in the construction of imperial, Fascist identities. Italianist Ruth Ben-Ghiat argues that scenes of Mediterranean crossings feature in almost every ‘empire film’ of the ventennio. These scenes, she suggests, serve to ‘initiate travellers into unstable realms of cultural translation and personal transformation’.45 The notion of the Mediterranean as a boundary, a place of ‘interactions and interviews’, served, in the Fascist, imperial imagination, a positive function.46 In films of the Fascist period themed around imperialism in Africa, be it about the ancient Roman Empire, as in Carmine Gallone’s 1937 film Scipione l’Africano, or that of twentieth century Italy, such as Mario Camerini’s 1928 film of the Italo-Turkish War, Kif Tebbi, Mediterranean crossings are ‘all about the male body, trying to break free of temptation and render themselves to the service of Fascist goals’.47 Thus, for Italian Fascism in its imperialist period, Mediterranean crossings acted as an ideological motor, propelling Italian society towards totalitarianism, standing in clear contrast to the ways in which Mediterranean crossings are figured in the imagination of contemporary Italian Fascisms.

CasaPound Italia, ‘Il Simbolo,’ CasaPound Italia.org, 22 March 2013, accessed September 6, 2019, https://www.casapounditalia.org/il-simbolo/. Giuseppe Piazza, La Nostra Terra Promessa (Rome: Bernardo Lux Editori, 1911), 116; Paolo Orano, Il Mediterraneo (Naples: Lega Navale, 1911), 20. Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29. července 1883 Dovia - 28. dubna 1945 Giulino) byl italsk Přesto snil o obnovení římské říše, která by ze Středomoří učinila Mare nostrum (Naše moře) See Javier Alcalde, ‘Why the Refugee Crisis is not a Refugee Crisis,’ Peace in Progress 29 (2016), accessed September 6, 2019, http://www.icip-perlapau.cat/numero29/articles_centrals/article_central_2/. Even if the coast of Tripoli were a desert, even if it would not support one peasant or one Italian business firm, we still need to take it to avoid being suffocated in mare nostrum.

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